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Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG2013-06-13 14:23:52
The use of calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide as sources of iodine is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses, cats and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3, 6 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from consumption of eggs. The UL for adults (600 μg/day) would be exceeded by a factor of 2, and that for toddlers (200 μg/day) by a factor of 4. If the authorised maximum iodine in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold). In the absence of data, the additives are considered as irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and as dermal sensitisers. Exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of the additives in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. Calcium iodate and potassium iodide are efficacious sources of iodine to meet animal requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; cats, 6 mg I/kg and dogs, 4 mg I/kg.
© European Food Safety Authority, 2013